In our series concerning the Vacuum Catastrophe problem -the 122 order of magnitude discrepancy between the vacuum energy density at cosmological scale and quantum scale- and the solution provided by the generalized holographic approach [1], we remarked that this solution to the vacuum catastrophe hinted into a very intriguing scenario … that our Universe fulfills the condition of a Black hole once you correctly calculate the contribution of the vacuum fluctuations that dark mass and dark energy account for.

This theoretical prediction might now-a-days be validated with the current observations of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as explained by Michio Kaku in a video entitled The Big Bang was Wrong -We live in a Black Hole! (posted on YouTube and no longer available), where he addressed why the recent observations of the JWST are challenging what we know about the origin of our universe. We will discuss such observations hereafter.

The main challenging observation from JWST is the detection of at least 6 huge galaxies, up to 10 times bigger than our Milky way, appearing at time frames in the early universe (approximately half a billion years old after the Big Bang). Galaxy formation based on the Big Bang model require much larger time scales for these galaxies to form, of many billion years. The possibility that these are not galaxies, but quasars, is trim because their spectral signature does not coincide. Therefore, unless these galaxies happened by some new extravagant condition that we are unaware of, they should not be there, and the fact that they are could be a clear indication that the Big Bang theory no longer holds.

Ivo Labbe, from Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, discovered these 6 galaxies [2] from JWST near infrared camera images that were released in July 2022. The objects detected showed extreme red shift coming from stretched light from the expansion of the universe, implying that such light is about 700 million years old. Therefore, these galaxies formed very efficiently and fast in the early universe, defying the common view that galaxies start from very small sizes, and they merge to form bigger galaxies in much longer periods of time. Additionally, these galaxies have much more mass than the one available at that period estimated by the CMB data, and they have gone through numerous cycles of star formations. All three aspects contradict the current astronomical models.

These galaxies host supermassive black holes that formed after the instant of creation, suggesting that maybe our Universe was created by a gigantic black hole that collapsed into a larger cosmos, in a nested configuration of black holes, one inside the other. In such a scenario, our universe evolved from a black hole in another universe, and this concept is said to be first introduced by Russian Physicist Igor Novikov in 1973, though we have found references from other authors, dating back to 1972 [3,4].

The possibility that the universe was a black hole is extremely relevant in the frame of the generalized Holographic Model and Unified Field theory developed by Nassim Haramein and his research team here at the International Space Federation. For at least 30 years Haramein has been asserting that black holes not only are the precursors of galaxy formation [5], reason why they precede the hosting galaxy (prediction that has been confirmed over the past years, read our former articles Black Holes Come First, Evidence of Black Holes Forming Galaxies, Galactic Engines), moreover, he also claimed that the Universe itself is a black hole, and calculations from 2019 [1] provide a theoretical framework to sustain such assertion.

## What exactly is a Black Hole?

One of the most outstanding predictions made by a scientific theory is that of the singularities predicted by General Relativity (GR). In the context of this theory from Albert Einstein, a singularity refers to an extremely dense region of space. A mass that is compressed into a spherical volume becomes a singularity when it reaches the radius discovered by German physicist and astronomer Karl Schwarzschild, who proposed the simplest solution to Einstein’s field equations of GR, that of an uncharged, static, spherical black hole. Though Schwarzschild’s legacy goes far beyond this achievement, his career hides in the shadow of his own radius.

^{Schwarzschild’s Radius: the First Solution to Einstein’s Field Equation}

In 1915, the same year that Einstein first introduced general relativity, German physicist and astronomer Karl Schwarzschild provided the first exact solution to the Einstein field equations of general relativity for a spherical, non-rotating, and uncharged mass [6]. Schwarzschild accomplished this while serving in the German army during World War I. He died the following year, on May 11, 1916, from the autoimmune disease pemphigus (which presumably was genetic) that he developed while at the Russian front.

_{Image source: Karl Schwarzschild’s radius How fame eclipsed a Physicist’s legacy.}

Using the field equations to calculate the gravitational effect of a single spherical body such as a star, Schwarzschild found that if the mass is neither very large nor highly concentrated, the result will be the same as that given by Newton’s theory of gravity. Therefore, Newton’s theory is not incorrect; it is a valid approximation of general relativity under certain conditions.

Schwarzschild also described a new effect; when the mass is concentrated in a vanishingly small volume —a singularity— gravity will become so strong that nothing that is pulled into the surrounding region can ever leave, not even light. In the rubber sheet analogy given in many dissemination articles, it is as if a tiny but very massive object creates a depression so steep that nothing can escape it. Because it would absorb light and never emit any, this extreme space-time distortion would be invisible — and it was dubbed a black hole. Schwarzschild’s result describes a sphere centered on a singularity whose radius is based on the density of the enclosed mass. Events within the sphere are presumed to be forever isolated from the rest of the universe; for this reason, the Schwarzschild radius is called the *event horizon,* and the interior of a black holes is supposed to be inaccessible.

Black holes were first thought to be a mathematical aspect of the theory with no real physical counterpart, even though more than a century earlier, in 1783, John Michell, one of Britain’s leading scientists, had suggested that the surface gravity of some stars could be so strong that not even light could escape from them. Using contemporary ideas about gravity and light, Michell even calculated that a ‘dark star’ with the mass of the Sun would be just a few miles in diameter, matching the modern calculations for the size of a solar-mass black hole.

In 1963, Maarten Schmidt discovered that an odd star-like point of light known as a quasar, named 3c273, is one of the most powerful objects in the universe. His finding leads to the realization that it, and all quasars, are powered by a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Below you can see a real image of a quasar, taken by the Chandra X-ray observatory.

_{Chandra X-Ray Image of Quasar PKS 1127-145}

Since then, astrophysicists have found more cosmic objects that contain such a dense concentration of mass in a small volume. Among these black holes are the one at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy (Sagittarius A*) and certain binary stars that emit X-rays as they orbit each other. Using the Event Horizon Telescope, we have been able to construct the first direct image of a black hole at the center of the galaxy M87, which lies some 55 million light-years away from Earth. And this image has been actualized with the new detailed shot of the Event Horizon Telescope revealing spiraling lines of mysterious magnetic forces, as shown below.

_{Source Image}_{ }_{here}

Now-a-days, black holes are a common object of study, and they have been found at the center of most galaxies. Their size is directly related to the size of the hosting galaxy, a fact that would make sense if the black hole were the creator of the galaxy, just as Nassim Haramein predicted more than 30 years ago.

^{The Holographic Mass and Schwarzschild’s mass}

The holographic principle as developed by Bekenstein and t’Hooft considers the information contained in the surface of a black hole taken as a spherical system but where the unit of tilling is a square of Planck size *l ^{2}*. Exploring this holographic principle further along with the maximal entropy of a black hole [7], Haramein proposes a generalized holographic approach in terms of BOTH the surface AND volume entropies of a spherical system, using a sphere as a first order approximation for the system under consideration. The results he obtained have proven this geometry to be a very good assumption, as we will resume hereafter.

Haramein’s generalized holographic model is based on a fundamental holographic ratio *Φ*: a steady state calculation representing an equilibrium energy exchange rate, like the kinetic constant in a chemical reaction, only that in Haramein’s approach it represents the energy or information transfer potential between surface and volume. This fundamental holographic ratio *Φ* has been determined for cosmological objects and quantum particles as well, and when brought to mass units, accounts for the mass of the object taken as spherical as a first approximation.

To account for the energy content in the system under consideration, Haramein defines a spherical volume unit with Planck length diameter and Planck mass, named Planck Spherical Unit, with Planck energy density of 10^{93} g/cm^{3}. These PSU stand for the vacuum energy density at the Plank scale: the vacuum fluctuations energy density. By voxelating the interior of the object with these PSU and pixelating the surface area by the equatorial disc of the PSU (that represents a bit of information as well), Haramein defines a volume energy (or information-entropy) content, and a surface energy content, respectively. Both quantities are nondimensional, and the ratio between surface and volume information content becomes the fundamental holographic ratio *Φ*, which is basically a ratio of radii.

As the figure below shows, this surface-to-volume entropy of a spherical system gives the holographic ratio *ɸ* obtained by tiling the surface and filling the volume of such a spherical system with the Planck Spherical Units PSUs -the Planck mass in a Planck spherical volume of Planck radius (Planck length /2)- which are units of energy density at the Planck scale.

^{Image credit: Dr. Amira Val Baker.}

When this relation between radii *Φ* is calculated for a quantum object, such as the proton, we obtain the mass of the proton -with experimental accuracy- by multiplying the fundamental ratio *Φ* by the Planck mass. Equivalently, by knowing the mass of the proton, one can compute its charge radius. It is extremely relevant that Haramein’s calculation predicted the new and most accurate charge radius of the proton in 2012, even before it had been measured that accurately in 2013 [8,9,10]. This all is part of the proton puzzle that we have addressed in a former article entitled *CODATA Proton Charge Radius: the History of this Fundamental Measurement*. When this holographic ratio was later calculated for the electron, and then multiplied by the Planck mass, Haramein obtained the electron mass, with experimental precision [11].

With the inverse of this holographic ratio (i.e., *R*/*η*) applied to a black hole, the mass of the black hole can be computed [9], through the equation:

Where *m _{l}* is the Planck mass, and the subscript

*H*means that this mass has been obtained through the holographic solution. We shall therefore refer to this mass as

*Holographic mass*.

The generalized holographic model offers an equation for the mass of a black hole in terms of the volume to surface geometric ratio (1/𝜙* = R*/*η*) for which only the Planck mass *m _{l}*, the Planck radius

*r*, and the radius of the black hole are required. Nontrivially,

_{l}*M*

_{H}= (1/𝜙)

*m*gives the same numerical value as the mass

_{l}*M*

_{S}in the equation for Schwarzschild’s radius solution to Einstein’s field equations for a nonrotating and uncharged black hole, which is

*M*

_{S}=

*r*

_{s}

*c*

^{2}/ (2

*G*).

The equivalence *M*_{H }= *M*_{S} has remarkable implications. It means that spacetime is quantized with the very small granular structure of the Planck scale (the PSU). If the holographic mass *M _{H}* is equivalent to Schwarzschild’s mass

*M*

_{S}, it should be noted that when applied to the universe, the equivalence between the critical density

*ρ*and the surface entropy of the universe yields the critical mass of the universe

_{crit}*M*which is a holographic solution for the mass (i.e., it is a holographic mass

_{crit}*M*) and hence obeys the Schwarzschild solution for a universe black hole (right hand side equation below) whose radius is the Hubble radius

_{H}*r*(

_{Ho}*r*

_{s}=*r*) as seen below:

_{U}= r_{Ho}where *ρ _{l}* is the Planck density, and

*η*, 𝜙, and

*V*correspond to the Universe. The Schwarzschild radius is

_{u}*r*,

_{s}*c*is the speed of light, and

*G*is the gravitational constant. Therefore

*M*is the Schwarzschild’s mass

_{crit}*M*as well.

_{S}

In simple words, this implies that the Universe itself obeys the conditions of a black hole. The idea that the observable universe could be the interior of a black hole was originally put forward in 1972 by Pathria [3] and Good [4]. Physicist Nikodem Poplawski [12] reiterated the theory that our universe may be inside a black hole that exists in a ‘parent universe’ (see the video here).

At this point, the reader may be wondering, if the calculation is so straight-forward, and the Eddington number (that estimates the number of protons in the universe) multiplied by the mass of the proton gives an estimation of the mass of the universe of the same order of magnitude of 10^{55}g, why has the black hole universe not been acknowledged by mainstream theories till now?

As strange as it may sound, at first most physicists only considered the baryonic mass of the universe in the Schwarzschild solution (even though dark mass and dark energy were inserted into EFE’s). i.e., dark mass and dark energy contributions, which are naturally embedded within the holographic solution as vacuum mass-energy contributions (as explained in detail in [1] and addressed in our article Solution to the Vacuum Catastrophe) are neglected and hence, they did not obtain the correct Schwarzschild radius for the universe as a black hole. And when considered, their estimations are close but not fulfilling exactly the Schwarzschild condition, because they are obtained phenomenologically from astronomical observations.

Meanwhile, as seen in reference [1], the holographic solution accounts for dark mass and dark energy contributions to Einstein’s field equations (EFEs) from first principle calculations, with no adjusting parameters. When the critical mass of the universe is found through the holographic solution, we see that it considers the correct values of all mass-energy contributions since the radius of the universe coincides exactly (up to the limited accuracy given the gravitational constant G) with the Schwarzschild radius. The better accuracy of our calculation relies upon the fact that we are using the PSU or quantized unit of energy density of the vacuum structure, accounting for the vacuum fluctuations energy density, the Planck units which are determined with high level of accuracy, and, because our results demonstrate that these PSU units are embedded naturally within the Schwarzschild solution [8,9,13]. Therefore, we don’t need general relativity to obtain the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole and quantum gravity is already embedded within these PSU units.

As explained in our ISF article Galactic Engines, systems obeying the Schwarzschild condition will be found as the organizational nucleus for organized matter, as is clearly delineated in Haramein’s scaling law for all organized matter [14]:

^{A scaling law for organized matter of frequency vs. radius. The black hole system is presented in this figure. Plotted from the top left is the mini black hole at the Planck distance of 10^-33} ^{cm through to the stellar-sized black holes, larger black holes, galactic center black holes and at the lower right is a Universe-sized black hole. Note that in between the stellar size and the Planck distance mini black hole we have included a data point for the atomic size which we as well calculate a new value for its mass that includes the energy available in the vacuum space of a nuclei and yields the correct radius to describe an atomic resolution as mini black holes… It is of interest that the microtubules of eukaryotic cells, which have a typical length of 2 X 10-8 cm and an estimated vibrational frequency of 109 to 1014 Hz lie quite close to the line specified by the scaling law and intermediate between the stellar and atomic scales. Image and image description from [14]}

Thus, the generalized holographic solution described in this article offers a physical explanation which is inherent within the equations of general relativity, so no correction terms are necessary. Renormalization still occurs, but the cutoff for renormalization is the Planck unit (PSU) which is based on the fundamental constants of nature (within our universe, at least).

## Unified Science in Perspective

For over 25 years physicist **Nassim Haramein** has been describing primordial black holes as the organizational nuclei of physical systems across scale, from the micro to the cosmological. Their spin produces a highly coherent region of quantized spacetime that has a specific ordering parameter, reason why they function as the organizational nucleus for organized matter (for more on this, please read our article Galactic Engines). This applies to organized matter across scale from particles to planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe itself [1,8,9,10,11,14]. In verification of this postulate, within the last few decades it has become widely acknowledged that black holes form the organizational nucleus for all regular galaxies.

The most important feature for black hole growth and energy output is the feedback-feedforward dynamics, which allows for auto organization; it is the hydrodynamic feedback flow of the underlying medium, i.e. the polarizable Planck field of spacetime mass-energy information quanta, that not only organizes matter across scales, it also provides a mechanism for a spacetime network (referred to as space-memory network in our context). This can be evidenced with the latest observations of thermal molecular filaments aligned radially and horizontally in the galactic plane and emanating from the central supermassive black hole— Sagittarius A*— revealing the underlying hydrodynamic ordering structure of the spacememory network and the relationship geometry of the spacememory architecture to the black hole magnetohydrodynamics at the Galactic Nucleus [15].

The mechanism is straight forward from the perspective of Haramein’s holographic solution, considering that the proton obeys the Schwarzschild condition as well when the energy of the strong force α_{S }is considered (which is where the mass of the proton comes from in the standard model). This means that the surface of the proton would have *η =* 10^{40} wormhole terminations [8,9], such that the volume information is not only the result of the information/entropy surface bound of the local environment, but may also be non-local, due to these wormhole interactions like those proposed by a conjecture known as ER=EPR conjecture (proposed by Maldacena and Susskind) in which black hole interiors are connected to each other through micro wormholes [16].

^{Juan Maldacena (left) and Leonard Susskind (right)}

Such a network of entangled protons could allow for information transfer and flow across scales, that actualizes the information in all protons seemingly instantaneously. This would imply a quasi-instantaneous feedback-feedforward mechanism at microscale and below, that could account for the creation and organization of all matter in the universe in very early stages, while solving the information paradox as well because the information in a black hole is not evaporating, protons are entangled and act like hubs where the information is stored/shared. The overall result is that information is not lost, and that the singularity at the center of black holes are not real mathematical singularities, they have a natural cutoff.

Interestingly, a recent article in Quanta Magazine entitled In New Paradox, Black Holes Appear to Evade Heat Death addresses an analog mechanism proposed by Leonard Susskind to address the volume information entangled structure of black holes, via quantum complexity. The research proved that a black hole, which is a strongly gravitating system, is mathematically equivalent to a strongly correlated non-gravitational quantum system where the black hole was treated equivalently to a thermal state of quantum fields; a hot plasma made up of nuclear particles. Plasma undergoes millions of interactions, creating an increasingly complex quantum state because the space of possibilities is humongous, and this process was proven to approximate a truly random distribution. Since randomness is maximal complexity, getting closer to randomness means that the system grows ever more complex, and at nearly the same rate at which the black hole interior grows bigger.

Therefore, if through the holographic duality AdS/CFT, black holes could be equivalent to hot plasma, the volume of the black hole is mathematically equivalent to the circuit complexity of the plasma (the interaction of particles within the plasma), and because the circuit complexity keeps growing, so must the volume of the black hole. The trick is that since a black hole is governed by the laws of gravity, if you can simulate those laws on a computer with enough precision, you get as much information without having to go inside the black hole to access it. The research team found that the black hole’s interior volume is eminently calculable, and we remark that the same happens with the generalized holographic approach from Haramein, where the internal state of a black hole is easily determined by the volume entropy R. Nevertheless, Haramein’s approach gives the correct values from first principle analytical calculations without resorting to complicated computations requiring adjusting parameters, and one can follow the mechanism all the way through.

Since in a quantum system, complexity is the number of elementary or operations needed to replicate a particular state, it is presumed that even after the plasma reaches a condition of thermal equilibrium, its quantum state does not stop evolving, becoming even more complex, and that would explain the ever-growing feature of black holes.

The problem is that even within this novel approach, a second law of thermodynamics is being imposed where in a much longer time, a black hole would eventually reach a complexity equilibrium state where the system continues to change but it can no longer be said to evolve — it has no sense of direction, wandering among equal states of maximal complexity. With respect to this last, Nassim Haramein states that:

*The concept of entropy is always given in a linear function from order to disorder as if the universe was not doing the ordering part for the disorder to occur later. Basically they (the standard view) got stuck with the steam engine analogy, applying it to the universe not ever considering that the coal they put in the steam engine was organized by the universe as a highly packed energy density in the first place, as if you could have entropy without centropy or negentropy*.

Nassim Haramein

It is worth asking what is the relationship between a black hole universe, whose singularity at its center is a spatial singularity, and the Big Bang, which is a singularity in time (this PBS episode contains an interesting discussion on this topic). Maybe the Big Bang is just the singularity at the center of our black hole universe. Coincidentally, general relativity brakes down in both situations, while the generalized holographic model can address them since as we explained formerly, we do not need GR to obtain the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole and quantum gravity is already embedded within the PSU units.

From all the above, evidently something huge is missing in the current standard understanding of the physical world, basically because the vacuum fluctuation energy density and its contributions are being neglected or poorly accounted for and therefore, the origin of mass and forces, and of how the fundamental constants are connected, is totally unknown.

All this will be clear soon, once Haramein’s Unified field theory is published [17]. His complete calculation demonstrates that there is an ordering parameter across scales, provided by the inherent spin of the quantum vacuum structure which is not fundamentally random, that creates systems obeying the Schwarzschild condition at different scales (PSUs, Protons, planets, galaxies, and the universe itself), all connected through the entanglement network, such that these entities work in a harmonic, concerted manner, as organizing nuclei at each scale.

## References

[1] Haramein, N & Val Baker, A. K. F. (2019). Resolving the Vacuum Catastrophe: A Generalized Holographic Approach, *Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology*, Vol.05 No.02(2019), Article ID:91083, 13 pages

[2] Labbe, I. et al, A population of red candidate massive galaxies ~600 Myr after the Big Bang Nature, Vol. 616, Issue 7956, p.266-269 (2023) arXiv:2207.12446

[3] R. K. Pathria, The Universe as a Black Hole, *Nature, *vol. 240, pp. 298-299, 1972.

[4] I. J. Good, Chinese Universes, *Physics Today, *vol. 25, no. 7, p. 15, 1972.

[5] D. R. G. Schleicher, F. Palla, A. Ferrara, D. Galli, and M. Latif, “Massive black hole factories: Supermassive and quasi-star formation in primordial halos,” *A&A*, vol. 558, p. A59, Oct. 2013, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201321949

[6] Schwarzschild, K., On the gravitational Field of a Mass Point according to Einstein’s theory *Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys. Math. Kl*. 189 (Submitted 13, Jan. 1916) https://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/9905030.pdf

[7] t Hooft G. The Holographic Principle. arXiv:hep-th/0003004v2. 2000;1-15

[8] Haramein, N. (2012). Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass, *Physical Review & Research International*, ISSN: 2231-1815, Page 270-292

[9] Haramein, N. (2010). The schwarzschild proton, *AIP Conference Proceedings*, CP 1303, ISBN 978-0-7354-0858-6, pp. 95-100. [3] Quantum Gravity and the holographic mass.

[10] Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass, registered at the Library of Congress, 12/20/2012 https://cocatalog.loc.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?Search_Arg=Quantum+gravity+and+the+holographic+mass&Search_Code=TALL&PID=4P-To2WpS1TNnoZjOjgXa_WLauJ9&SEQ=20230615155532&CNT=25&HIST=1

[11] Val baker, A.K.F, Haramein, N. and Alirol, O. (2019). The Electron and the Holographic Mass Solution, Physics Essays, Vol 32, Pages 255-262.

[12] N. J. Poplawski, Radial Motion into an Einstein-Rosen bridge *Phys. Letts. B, *vol. 687, no. 110-113, 2010.

[13] Frino, R.A, Derivation of the Schwarzschild radius without General Relativity. https://vixra.org/pdf/1512.0496v1.pdf

[14] Haramein, N., Rauscher, E.A., and Hyson, M. (2008). Scale unification: a universal scaling law. *Proceedings of the Unified Theories Conference*. ISBN 9780967868776

[15] F. Yusef-Zadeh, R. G. Arendt, M. Wardle, and I. Heywood, “The Population of the Galactic Center Filaments: Position Angle Distribution Reveals a Degree-scale Collimated Outflow from Sgr A* along the Galactic Plane,” *ApJL*, vol. 949, no. 2, p. L31, Jun. 2023, doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/acd54b.

[16] J. Maldacena and L. Susskind, Cool horizons for entangled black holes, e-print arXiv:1306.0533 (2013).

[17] Haramein N. and Alirol O., Scale invariant unification of forces, fields and particles in a quantum vacuum plasma https://zenodo.org/record/4270619